Fractal Ice Formations on Window of Car, 2010, Photo by Mark C. Langdon. This is an astonishing example of the process that is described as "Emergence". Emergence is the process by which complex order can be generated from what appears to be only chaos. The water molecule is an electrical dipole - it has a positive and negative end. This simple feature, given the right conditions, can cause surprising, complex patterns to be generated. Although these ice-frost patterns resemble snowflakes, they were roughly 3 to 4 inches across, and disappeared once the sunlight warmed them slightly.

Fractal Image Created using Lyapunov Exponents.

"Snow Queen" - Created using Lyapunov Exponent Program

Fusion Simulation - Created using Lyapunov Exponent Program

This fractal image was generated using the MandelBulb program, and shows an illustration of a synthetic virus, generated as an example of how a complex, 3-dimensional shape, can be constructed using only a mathematical formula, and an IFS - Iterative Functional System. The MandleBulb program can generate 3-D constructs that show remarkable similarity to organic entities.

A Cloud Fractal as Seen from Earth. Photo by Mark C. Langdon

Fractal Cloud Formation as Seen from Space, on the International Space Station.

Fractal Topography of Earth

Fractal Topography of Rivers on Titan

Fractal Clouds and Trees with Sunrise. Photo by Mark C. Langdon.

Fractal Forest by Canadian Artist, Tom Thomson.